The small town Jince (391 m a.s.l.) is situated on the border of the Nature conservation area Brdy which came into existence as of 1/1/2016. It lies in the middle of the Jince basin, running from the southern edge of Cenkov village to the northern edge of Rejkovice village. The Litavka streamlet flows through Jince, into which the Ohrazenice (Trout) brook flows in the northern part of the town. It is located in Brdy hills with the average altitude of 450 – 600 m a.s.l. 11 km to the north of Pribram. Villages Rejkovice (in the north) and Berin (above the Vinice hill) are embodied into the small town. At present Jince, including the adjacent villages, has about 2,200 inhabitants. In connection with the termination of the Army district Brdy, the cadastre area of Jince in Brdy was attached to the town and the total cadastre area increased to 36.63 km2.
The garrison of the 13th Artillery regiment is seated in Jince.
Jince was permanently settled in 12th and 13th century. Different small knights took turns, building a homestead of not a big importance.
In written, the local settlement is for the first time mentioned at the beginning of the 14th century when here was a wooden fort and a parish church. Before the end of the 14th century, a royal court is documented. Thanks to it we have also the first written document about Jince. It is the Privilege of King Wenceslas IV, issued in 1390. It follows from it that iron ore had been mined and processed here for a long time.
The first blast furnace is documented in 1646.
Beside iron ore, a significant volume of charcoal, burnt in local vast forests, was necessary for iron production. All the work was done by serfs and, after 1871, by corvées in the scope of their corvée duties.
In 1647, at the end of 30-years-war, the Jince estate was bought by Wenceslaw Wratislav of Mitrovice. This ancient noble family owned the estate for full 155 years. The first members of this family seated in a brick one-storeyed fort. In spite of the fact that they did not neglect the agriculture, the main part of their income came from the iron production. These incomes enabled huge construction activities. In 1728 – 1731, the up-to-then wooden small church was replaced by a big brick baroque church with charnel, dedicated to St. Nicolas (the organs in the church are from 1896, made by Petr Emanuel Stepan). The previous graveyard by the church was cancelled and a new cemetery was established above the town.
The manor house came through the biggest change. During the 18th century, when the manor was taken over by Frantisek Karel Wratislav Jr., the brick fort was rebuilt into a large storeyed castle, with many living and representative rooms, a chapel, etc. The interiors were richly decorated with paintings and statues. The castle façade, oriented to the east towards the Litavka stream, was opened with “Sala Terrena” (in renaissance and baroque architecture popular palace hall – ground floor lounge – usually with one open side with arcades into the garden), decorated with many statues, stone vases and fountains and with artificial grotto. Even after 100 years, when the Jince castle was not a manor house any more, the experts used to say that with its acreage and beauty it outdid both castles of Horovice town. However, in 1805 the indebted Wratislaw family sold the Jince estate to the Count Rudolf Vrbna who connected it with the Horovice estate.
Till 1810, Count Rudolf Vrbna was building the blast furnace Barbora which stays on its place up to now. That is the last charcoal blast furnace in the middle Europe. It had been operated till 1874, when the saw mill was set into its object which sacrificed it against demolition.
The Vrbna family owned the Horovice-Jince manor till 1852, when they sold it to the Hessen prince elector Wilhelm. He brought a part of the decorations to the Horovice castle and the Jince castle gradually delipidated. Cellars and staircases were demolished, the castle chapel liquidated. The object served as a deposition of a mineral collection, then as an iron warehouse. In 80´s of 19th century, it was rebuilt into a brewery. The table saying “Prince Brewery” was attached to the rear façade. After 1948 the brewery was nationalised and taken over by the Brdy Brewery. The building went on delipidating and in 1964 the fire destroyed the majority of decorated ceilings from the 18th century. At the end of 70´s and 80´s of the last century the revitalisation of the castle was started. However, the initiated reconstruction of interiors was stopped by the restitution process after the “velvet revolution”.
In 1806, Josef Slavík was born in Jince. He was a violin virtuoso and composer very acknowledged in his time who unfortunately died only 27 years old. To his memory, the Community centre organises a concert called “Slavik´s Jince” every year.
In the half of the 19th century, Jince was just a big village, with several tens of cottages and farmsteads, in majority the wooden ones. In 1843, there was 93 houses with 777 inhabitants. In 1921, in Jince lived 888 people in 131 houses. The most people worked in iron production, others worked in forest or in the manor house. Crafts were the important source of livelihood, too.
In the 19th century, the French geologist and palaeontologist, Joachim Barrande, researched the rich habitats of trilobites here. The most frequent species of trilobite is so called “konin´s small crayfish” which is also included into the Jince arms of coat.
During the 2nd half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, Jince came through many positive changes. An extensive sewage system was built; in 1882 a school was constructed, the education being started since 2 January 1883. The town was lightened with petroleum streetlamps, the original ground school below the parish office (today´s Community centre of Josef Slavik) was rebuilt into the one-storeyed municipality. The safety was ensured by the local policeman. A “decoration” association, established based on the initiative of the local physician Dr. Jan Moser, took care of the town appearance. Dr. Moser also built a sanatorium (spa), very modern one at that time with outdoor swimming pool; he also set up a park in the square. In the town part Kralovky, there was established a sanatorium of Dr. Josef Sirek, since 1932 being visited by patients with lungs diseases. At present, there is the Ermi hotel there.
The important moment, having a permanent effect on the life in Jince, was an establishment of the artillery shooting range in 1927. In that time, the building of large barracks was started, too. In 1950, the Brdy Army district was set up on the territory of the shooting range. It has been cancelled as of 1/1/2016 being replaced by the Nature conservation area Brdy .
The village Jince was promoted to the small town by the imperial decree from 5 December 1900 . The privilege was issued by Frantisek Josef I. on 13 February 1902. At the same time, the small town received a coat of arms depicting the hillfort on the Plesivec hill, the local nail industry and the rich geological deposits (the Barrande strata of Jince). The status of the small town was renewed as of 17/10/2006.
Description of the town´s coat of arms:
The shield is vertically split and in the right part further horizontally divided. In the left blue field, there is a rock, forested at the bottom, bare on the top, in natural colours, raising from the bottom to the half of the shield and going down from the dividing line to the left side. On the top of the rock, there is a cuboidal bulwark of natural colour (whitish) with battlement. In the right upper red field, there are two crossed nails, tips downwards. In the right lower black field, there is a silver trilobite of species Ellipsocephalus.
At present the small town Jince with the adjacent villages Rejkovice and Berin has 2.259 inhabitants.
In 2002, the gas installation has been started and it is almost finished now. The water piping was reconstructed and sewage treatment plant was broadened and modernised. The local communications are continuously repaired; the town takes care of local greenery – parks and surroundings of houses are carefully maintained. The citizens take advantage of local health centre and pharmacy. Children visit a modern kindergarten with capacity of 120 places. About 250 pupils learn in local primary school in scope of which also the branch of the primary artistic school of Rozmital town is active. The municipality prepares a loft conversion of 4 classrooms. The building of used to be Moser´s spa (No. 28) is under reconstruction, too. The object is going to offer flats and facilities for the school.
The demand for new houses has been increasing recently; about 50 of them were constructed above the western periphery of Jince, in the locality “At vista”.
The municipality supports the activities of local associations – local voluntary fire brigade, sporting association Sokol, football team SK Jince 1921 and many hobby organisations – beekeepers, breeders of small animals, gardening fans, women union, fishermen, Pioneers, Jinecacek (mother and kids association) etc.
Great attention is paid to culture, the Community centre of Josef Slavik offers many services and actions for the public, the local bibliotheca is located in the same house. Monthly bulletin “Jinecky zpravodaj” informs local citizens of the actualities and forthcoming events.
The visitors of Jince can find a refreshment in the Pension Eska at the square, where they brew a local bear Vilem, in the Ermi hotel in the town part Kralovky, in the Hotel Kratochvil by the railway station or in the restaurant U Pstruha (the Trout inn) in nearby Ohrazenice village. During summer, the popular local outdoor bio-swimming pool and the football pitch with own irrigation are in operation. Another playing field, with artificial surface, can be found in the housing estate in Zborovska street and below the kindergarten
(26 March 1806 Jince – 30 May 1833 Budapest)
Josef Slavik is the most famous native of Jince. This genial violist and composer was born into the family of a teacher and musician Antonín Slavik who taught his son to play the violin since he was 4 years old. In1815, the family moved to Horovice and small Josef was already such skilled in that time that he played the first violin role in the quartet of the Count Rudolf Vrbna. When the Count recognised the boy´s talent, he took him to Prague for the entrance exam of conservatory and after Slavik was accepted he had been paying his studies for following 7 years. Slavík studied violin as the main instrument by B. V. Pixis and there was no unsolvable technical problem for him.
After graduation Josef Slavik became a concert mister in the Estates Theatre in Prague while he still refined his technique and cultivated the dynamics. In addition, he begun to give individual concerts and to compose. At that time, the work of Nicolas Paganini caught his attention and encouraged him for further creation.
In his 20´s he had already a reputation of the brilliant violinist, dealing with the most difficult parts with bravura. The then press stated: „This young artist excels especially in passages with double stops and sixths, played with the highest possible speed and exactness, arpeggios of every kind and of every positions, even playing 96 notes of staccato in one draught of the bow!“
In 1825 he left for Vienna where he accepted a gratis position in the imperial orchestra (so called capella). He made his living by teaching the violin and solo performances and the Vienna audience was soon enchanted by his matchless art.
In occasion of the Paganini concert in Vienna in 1828, Slavik accomplished his dream to meet the famous violinist personally. After the concert the Italian artist received Slavik among other musicians and let him present his mastery. To the surprise of the unsuspecting mister, Slavik played his Bell Rondo which he heard only once at that concert.
At the turn of 1828 and 1829 Slavik spent half a year in Paris. But as an unwelcomed competitor, he had not been accepted warmly in the musicians circles.
After coming back to Vienna he was appointed a full-bodied member of the imperial “capella” which provided an important source of livelihood for him. In Vienna, he became a friend of Frederik Chopin, who very appreciated his abilities: „His performance takes his audience breath away and moves them to tears, he would make cry even a tiger!“. Franz Schubert dedicated his Fantasy C major for piano and violin, op. 159 to Slavik as a token of his friendship.
Only 25 years old, Slavik was labelled as a Paganini successor. In 1833, before his planned tour into Hungary, he said his farewell to Vienna with his up-to-then most successful concert. However, he neglected the treatment of a flue, playing with a fever. Shortly after the arrival to Pest the disease burst to the full and Slavík died at the age of 27, long ago before hit possible interpretation and composer height.
He was buried in Pest and only after one hundred years his remains were conveyed to his homeland and were committed to grave in the Vysehrad cemetery in Prague. At the same time (28 May 1933), a memorial plaque was placed on his native home in Jince.
Variation E major (1820)
Violin concert fis minor (1823, a graduation opus from conservatory)
Capricci D major (1824)
Rondino for violin with piano accompaniment (1826)
Violin concert a minor (1827)
Piano Polonaise D major (1828)
Violin variations on G string "Il Pirata" (1832)